Most oil fields are far from the place of processing and marketing of crude oil, so fast and cost-effective delivery and is vital to the prosperity of the industry. Delivery prepared for distant transportation of oil from the oil fields to other points of processing and consumption. Implemented by pipeline, rail, sea, river and road transport modes.
Oil which moves at a speed of 3 m / sec under the action of the pressure difference created by pumping stations. They are placed at intervals of 70-150 kilometers, depending on the route topography. At a distance of 10-30 kilometers in pipes placed valves, allowing to block some parts of the accident. The inner diameter of the pipes is usually from 100 to 1,400 millimeters. They are made of superplastic steels that can withstand temperature, mechanical and chemical influences. Gradually increasing popularity gain of reinforced plastic pipes. They do not corrode and have a virtually unlimited service life.
Pipelines used to transport large quantities of oil, petroleum products and liquefied petroleum gases in the same direction.
It's advantages: the shortest track in comparison with other species; possibility of laying any distance between any objects; continuity, ensuring regular deliveries and uninterrupted supply of consumers without the cost of creating large storage of cargo on routes ends; minimal loss of oil and oil products; highest mechanization and automation. Disadvantages of pipeline transport: large metal consumption and the "rigidity" of transportation routes. The share of this type of transport of oil has been steadily increasing.
Oil pipelines are underground and ground. Both types have their advantages. Onshore pipelines easier to build and operate. In case of accidents it is significantly easier to detect and remove damage on the pipe, held above ground. At the same time the underground pipelines are less affected by changes in weather conditions, which is especially important for Russia, where the difference of summer and winter temperatures in some regions. Its advantages: the shortest track in comparison with other species; possibility of laying any distance between any objects; continuity, ensuring regular deliveries and uninterrupted supply of consumers without the cost of creating large storage of cargo on routes ends; minimal loss of oil and oil products; highest mechanization and automation. Disadvantages of pipeline transport: large metal consumption and the "rigidity" of transportation routes. The share of this type of transport of oil has been steadily increasing.
Railway transport oil delivered goods of all kinds, including and liquefied petroleum gases in tanks, silos or containers easy. Mainly used for transporting petroleum products small batches, primarily oils, bitumen and others. In large oil Throughput steady use of this kind is not economically feasible. Versatile, it can carry out transport links between most points in oil production and its consumption by means of an extensive network of trunk and branch lines and rolling stock; It has a high total bandwidth; It provides uniformity of supply throughout the year; path length of pipeline transport, but short of water. Disadvantages: tank empty runs; limited bandwidth of the route; the need to create handling of oil devices, platforms and oil storage facilities at the shipping point and reception of oil cargo; relatively large losses during transportation and congestion.
Water transport can carry crude oil, petroleum products and liquefied gases in any quantity in the tank barges and tankers As well as in small containers; has a relatively low rate of delivery, in addition, we need a mooring and tank farms for the receipt and shipment of oil cargo (see; The oil wharf, Stender). Maritime transport of oil - the only kind that provides intercontinental transport links offers unlimited bandwidth.
Oil and oil products loaded into tankers from the shore, and unloading are using the ship's pumps and pipelines laid in the tank and along the deck. However, the super tankers with deadweight of 250 thousand tons, as a rule, simply cannot enter the port, when fully loaded. They are filled with offshore and unload, pumping the liquid contents to smaller tankers.
Another type of oil transportation - by rail: This is a quick way to season. In our country, it is used to deliver oil by rail requires 10 times more effort than for its transport by pipeline.
Road Transport provides transport for short distances from large to small tank farms and then to consumers. It features high maneuverability, mobility, maneuverability. However, they are delivered to small volumes of goods are inevitable empty runs of tankers are subject to availability, technical condition and branching on the service area petro-cargoes roads.
We also use Wagon and Truck to do the transportation of Oil and oil products loaded into tankers from the shore, and unloading and the It features high maneuverability, mobility, maneuverability.